How to handle conservativeness of Exact p-value?

Posted by Ashwini Joshi

Sep 18, 2017 7:38:45 AM

 

By Ashwini Joshi

For small sample data or rare events data, exact non-parametric tests perform better than asymptotic tests. But they come with the disadvantage of conservativeness. Many corrections have been suggested to reduce this conservativeness but none of them solve the problems entirely.  StatXact provides various methods of computing exact p-values. Depending upon the problem at hand, the user can decide which one to use.
Let’s consider a hypothetical example of stratified count data. The example shows two sample data with two strata. Events in Treatment1 are rare as compared to the ones in Treatment0. But the event rates are comparable.

Read More

Topics: StatXact, Exact Tests, exact statistics, Small Sample Sparse Data, biostatistics, p value


Inference on Confidence Intervals for Adaptive Designs: The Latest Breed of Adaptive Clinical Trials

Posted by Esha Senchaudhuri

Sep 17, 2015 3:51:00 PM

Most people familiar with adaptive clinical trial designs are familiar with those statistical designs that reject the null hypothesis. These include now familiar designs like the promising zone design and the adaptive switch design

A newer breed of adaptive designs, however, aims to apply adaptation techniques to confidence intervals.

Read More

Topics: Cyrus Mehta, Exact Tests, Adaptive Clinical Trials


StatXact 25th Anniversary: Reflections of a Pioneer

Posted by Professor Joan Hilton (Guest Author)

Apr 30, 2014 4:15:00 PM

For the second installment of our StatXact 25th Anniversary Retrospective Series, Professor Joan Hilton (UC San Francisco) reflects on her pioneering work on exact conditional inferences.

Read More

Topics: StatXact, Cyrus Mehta, Exact Tests, Exact tests for categorical data, Webinar Slides


StatXact 25th Anniversary: A Horizon for the Stars

Posted by Esha Senchaudhuri

Apr 21, 2014 3:57:00 PM

The core methodological problem that would eventually spur the development of Cytel’s StatXact software was first posed by Harvard’s Marvin Zelen at a computational seminar in the late 1970s. Zelen, a distinguished professor of statistical sciences and head of the Department of Biostatistics at Harvard University, was also serving as the Director of the Dana Farber Cancer Institute.

The analysis of serious adverse events from cytotoxic agents in oncology trials were heavily dependent on an imprecise Cochran rule to measure the signifincance of small sample categorical data. The crude calculation meant that estimations of p-values were wide off the mark. Zelen challenged his students to find ways to expand Fisher’s exact test to r x c contingency tables, and by doing so to seal the promise of more effective development and delivery of urgent cancer treatments.

Cyrus Mehta and Nitin Patel took up Zelen’s challenge, publishing a series of papers on exact significance testing throughout the 1980s. Despite offering novel statistical solutions to persisting problems, the implementation of such solutions clearly required assistance from software. Unfortunately, few venture capitalists were willing to invest in a package of arcane statistical tests that were largely still in development.

Cytel was created with a grant from the National Cancer Institute, with a view to developing software that would make newer exact tests widely available for clinical studies. Its first software package, StatXact, is now used for exact testing in oncology, as well as environmental studies, public health, demography, law, and several areas of medicine and clinical development. The widespread use of exact tests has led to an array of intriguing research questions involving the power of various exact tests. Below we present a favorite finding, on the power of conditional versus unconditional exact tests:

Mehta, Cyrus R., and Pralay Senchaudhuri. "Conditional versus unconditional exact tests for comparing two binomials." Cytel Software corporation 675 (2003).

 

Read More

Topics: StatXact, Nitin Patel, Cyrus Mehta, White Paper, Statistics Article full PDF, Oncology, Access to Paper PDF, Exact Tests, Marvin Zelen, Statistical Puzzles


The Cytel blog keeps you up to speed with the latest developments in biostatistics and clinical biometrics.  Sign up for updates direct to your inbox. You can unsubscribe at any time.

 

Posts by Topic

see all

Recent Posts